Monograph of Malcinae, with reconsideration of morphology and phylogeny of related groups (Heteroptera, Malcidae)

Štys P.
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 37: 351-516, 1967
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Abstract: 1. The morphology (including also internal ectodermal genitalia) of Malcinae and Chauliopinae is described and figured. Especially the morphology of abdomen and genitalia is studied in detail, and is partly newly interpreted. 2. The 5th stage nymph and eggs of Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Stal are described and figured. 3. The cases of teratology in Malcinae are described. 4. The morphology of Malcinae and Chauliopinae is compared, and primitiveness or derivativeness of individual structures is established. 5. The morphology of these subfamilies is compared with that of Lygaeidae (esp. Cyminae), Berytidae and Colobathristidae. Many new data on 2 latter families are presented, and the laterotergal region of Berytidae is newly interpreted. 6. Morphology of nymphs and eggs, anatomical and cytological data about the mentioned groups are compared. 7. The phylogeny of Malcinae and Chauliopinae is discussed. Both groups evolved probably (together with Cyminae, Berytidae and Colobathristidae) from precymine lygaeids. All non-lygaeid families of Coreoidea (sensu Štys) evolved probably from extinct Lygaeidae. 8. Some theoretical aspects of study of phylogeny are discussed; a theory on mosaic-like realization of evolutionary trends is presented. 9. Malcinae are raised to a family rank, the Chauliopinae are included in the Malcidae as a subfamily. 10. Some theoretical opinions on the relation of hierarchical classificitation to phylogeny are given. 11. New definitions of Malcidae, Malcinae and Chauliopinae are given. 12. The catalogue of references to Malcinae is given, the history of research in this group is reviewed. 13. The importance of some characters for taxonomy of Malcinae is discussed; application of some standard methods for study of this group is recommended. 14. The results of measurements and calculated ratios are summarized in biometrical tables. 15. Two keys to Malcinae are given: one based on externally visible characters, the other solely on male genitalia. 16. Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Sml. (=M. scutellatus Distant New synonym), M. idoneus Horvath and M. japonicus Ishihara et Hasegawa are redescribed. The references to these species are discussed. 17. A clinal variability in Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Stall is noted. 18. The following new taxa are described: Malcus auriculatus, n. sp. (Burma), M. dentatus, n. sp. (Thai), M. elongatus, n. sp. (Burma), M. flavidipes asper, n. subsp. (E. Himalaya), M. flavidipes kumaunensis, n. subsp. (W. Himalaya), M.furcatus, n. sp. (Burma), M. inconspicuus, n. sp. (N. Vietnam, China), M. indicus, n. sp. (S. India), M. insularis, n. sp. (Taiwan), M. mishmi, n. sp. (Burma), M. nigrescens, n. sp. (Burma), M. nigrifasciatus, n. sp. (E. Himalaya), M. pallidus, n. sp. (Burma), M. setosus, n. sp. (Burma), M. similis, n. sp. (Burma), M. sinicus, n. sp. (China), M. thoracicus, n. sp. (N. Vietnam) and M. tuberculatus, n. sp. (Assam, Benghal, Burma). 19. All redescribed and described taxa are many times figured. 20. The zoogeography of Malcinae is reviewed, and their speciation is discussed. The modern species evolved probably by a „fragmentation“ of a single ancestral species during Tertiary orogenetic changes. Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Stall may be most close to that species.
Key words: morphology, phylogeny, Malcidae, Heteroptera, Hemiptera, revision, morphology, immature stages, anatomy, cytology, phylogeny, zoogeography, ecology, biology, Lygaeidae. Malcinae, key to species, Myanmar, Oriental, Thailand, new subspecies, new species, India, Indonesia, Java, Taiwan, Japan, China, Palaearctic,
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