Monograph of Malcinae, with reconsideration of morphology and phylogeny of related groups (Heteroptera, Malcidae)
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 37: 351-516, 1967
Abstract: 1. The morphology (including also internal ectodermal genitalia) of Malcinae
and Chauliopinae is described and figured. Especially the morphology of abdomen
and genitalia is studied in detail, and is partly newly interpreted. 2. The 5th
stage nymph and eggs of Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Stal are described and
figured. 3. The cases of teratology in Malcinae are described. 4. The
morphology of Malcinae and Chauliopinae is compared, and primitiveness or
derivativeness of individual structures is established. 5. The morphology of
these subfamilies is compared with that of Lygaeidae (esp. Cyminae), Berytidae
and Colobathristidae. Many new data on 2 latter families are presented, and the
laterotergal region of Berytidae is newly interpreted. 6. Morphology of nymphs
and eggs, anatomical and cytological data about the mentioned groups are
compared. 7. The phylogeny of Malcinae and Chauliopinae is discussed. Both
groups evolved probably (together with Cyminae, Berytidae and Colobathristidae)
from precymine lygaeids. All non-lygaeid families of Coreoidea (sensu Štys)
evolved probably from extinct Lygaeidae. 8. Some theoretical aspects of study
of phylogeny are discussed; a theory on mosaic-like realization of evolutionary
trends is presented. 9. Malcinae are raised to a family rank, the Chauliopinae
are included in the Malcidae as a subfamily. 10. Some theoretical opinions on
the relation of hierarchical classificitation to phylogeny are given. 11. New
definitions of Malcidae, Malcinae and Chauliopinae are given. 12. The catalogue
of references to Malcinae is given, the history of research in this group is
reviewed. 13. The importance of some characters for taxonomy of Malcinae is
discussed; application of some standard methods for study of this group is
recommended. 14. The results of measurements and calculated ratios are
summarized in biometrical tables. 15. Two keys to Malcinae are given: one based
on externally visible characters, the other solely on male genitalia.
16. Malcus flavidipes flavidipes Sml. (=M. scutellatus Distant New synonym), M.
idoneus Horvath and M. japonicus Ishihara et Hasegawa are redescribed. The
references to these species are discussed. 17. A clinal variability in Malcus
flavidipes flavidipes Stall is noted. 18. The following new taxa are described:
Malcus auriculatus, n. sp. (Burma), M. dentatus, n. sp. (Thai), M. elongatus, n.
sp. (Burma), M. flavidipes asper, n. subsp. (E. Himalaya), M. flavidipes
kumaunensis, n. subsp. (W. Himalaya), M.furcatus, n. sp. (Burma), M.
inconspicuus, n. sp. (N. Vietnam, China), M. indicus, n. sp. (S. India), M.
insularis, n. sp. (Taiwan), M. mishmi, n. sp. (Burma), M. nigrescens, n. sp.
(Burma), M. nigrifasciatus, n. sp. (E. Himalaya), M. pallidus, n. sp. (Burma),
M. setosus, n. sp. (Burma), M. similis, n. sp. (Burma), M. sinicus, n. sp.
(China), M. thoracicus, n. sp. (N. Vietnam) and M. tuberculatus, n. sp. (Assam,
Benghal, Burma). 19. All redescribed and described taxa are many times figured.
20. The zoogeography of Malcinae is reviewed, and their speciation is
discussed. The modern species evolved probably by a „fragmentation“ of a
single ancestral species during Tertiary orogenetic changes. Malcus flavidipes
flavidipes Stall may be most close to that species.
Key words: morphology, phylogeny, Malcidae, Heteroptera, Hemiptera, revision, morphology, immature stages, anatomy, cytology, phylogeny, zoogeography, ecology, biology, Lygaeidae. Malcinae, key to species, Myanmar, Oriental, Thailand, new subspecies, new species, India, Indonesia, Java, Taiwan, Japan, China, Palaearctic,